ASA logo
Introduction to Operationalization
Cover Page
Requires Subscription DOCX



How to Cite

Takeuchi, May, and Alex Takeuchi. 2016. “Introduction to Operationalization”. TRAILS: Teaching Resources and Innovations Library for Sociology, November. Washington DC: American Sociological Association.


Science’s mission is to discover the underpinning behind observable phenomena or abstract principles that link relevant variables, while testing specific hypotheses deduced from those abstract principles in terms of how those variables are related to each other. Operationalization is a critical process in the initial stage of scientific inquiry to...

Download this resource to see full details. Download this resource to see full details.


Subject Area(s):
Research Methods
Resource Type(s):
Class Level(s):
Any Level
Class Size(s):

Learning Goals and Assessments

Learning Goal(s):

  1. To understand operationalization.
  2. To practice formulating a simple bivariate hypothesis using common sociological variables.
  3. To assess the consistency between a logical speculation (i.e., a proposition stated with conceptual variables) and its empirically testable form (i.e., a testable hypothesis stated with empirical indicators) in typical research scenarios.

Goal Assessment(s):

  1. How appropriately students can match a conceptual variable, which may or not be directly observable, with its empirical indicator that would reasonably represent the conceptual variable in a measurable manner.
  2. How appropriately students can formulate a bivariate hypothesis that is logically sound and also empirically testable.
  3. How appropriately students can differentiate conceptual variables and their empirical indicators, and how critically they can evaluate the consistency between a logical speculation and its empirically testable form in different research scenarios.

When using resources from TRAILS, please include a clear and legible citation.

Cover Page
Requires Subscription DOCX

Our website uses cookies to improve your browsing experience, to increase the speed and security for the site, to provide analytics about our site and visitors, and for marketing. By proceeding to the site, you are expressing your consent to the use of cookies. To find out more about how we use cookies, see our Privacy Policy .