Hamburger Statistics – Introduction to T-Tests


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Teaching materials on quantitative analysis are often stereotyped as “dry,” “boring,” “difficult” or even “intimidating” by some undergraduate students. To make the entry level inferential statistics more approachable to those students, this assignment uses “down-to-earth” real-life examples with a hint of humor in teaching and learning of independent t-test for two samples and dependent t-test for paired samples. Specifically, this resource features one of the most popular foods for college students, hamburger to introduce students to simple spreadsheet operations, and help them acquire basic knowledge and skill of hypothesis testing discussed in elementary statistics textbooks. This material is recommended to be used sequentially following our previously published assignment “Pizza Statistics,” which includes exercises on descriptive statistics (i.e., mean and standard deviation) and confidence interval.


Resource Type(s):
May Takeuchi
Alex Takeuchi 
Date Published:
Subject Area:
Class Level:
College 300 
Class Size:

Usage Notes:

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Please refer to the attached document "Usage Notes."

Learning Goals and Assessments:

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Goal 1:
To learn how to examine the difference between two unrelated groups and between two related groups by comparing the means obtained from the two groups, using examples of real-life social situations.
Assessment 1:
How well students understand the nature of the problems and can formulate appropriate null hypotheses in Questions A3a, B3a, B3d, and C1 on the assignment sheet.
Goal 2:
To learn how to perform t-tests on a hypothetical data set using Microsoft Excel and report the results in APA format.
Assessment 2:
How appropriately students respond to Questions, A3b, B3b, B3e, B3f, and C2 on the assignment sheet.
Goal 3:
To learn how to make “empirically informed” decisions in everyday problem-solving situations based on simple quantitative analyses.
Assessment 3:
How appropriately students respond to Questions B3c, B3e, C3, and C4 on the assignment sheet.

Files for Download:

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Hamburger Stats_Assignment Sheet_Instructor Version.docx
Hamburger Stats_Assignment Sheet_Student Version.docx
Hamburger Stats_Usage Notes.docx
Hamburger Stats_Worksheets with Answers.xlsx